NCERT Biology Class 12 IMP For Gujarati Medium (GSEB) | STD 12 Science Biology IMP Questions Gujarati Medium

NCERT Biology Class 12 IMP For Gujarati Medium (GSEB) | STD 12 Science Biology IMP Questions Gujarati Medium

NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Science Biology (IMP GUJARATI MEDIUM)

Std 12 Science Biology Imp. For Gujarat Board (GSEB) Student

Std 12 Science Biology Imp. For Board Examination May 2021 For Gujarati Medium Student


Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms

The chapter, Reproduction in Organisms, explains how various
organisms are able to procreate. Reproduction is an important biological
process in which an organism gives rise to young ones similar to
itself. There are two types of reproduction. When offspring is produced
by a single parent with or without the involvement of gamete formation,
the reproduction is asexual. When two parents (opposite sex) participate
in the reproductive process and also involve the fusion of male and
female gametes, it is called sexual reproduction. These concepts are
elaborately explained with relevant diagrams and suitable examples, etc.

Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants explains the morphology,
structure and the processes of sexual reproduction in angiosperms. It
also elaborates on subtopics such as pre-fertilisation: Structure and
Events, Double fertilisation, Post fertilisation: Structure and Events,
Apomixis and Polyembryony.

Chapter 3: Human Reproduction

Reproductive events in humans include the formation of gametes
(gametogenesis), i.e., sperms in males and ovum in females. Humans reach
sexual maturity after reaching a certain age – this is called puberty.
There are remarkable differences between the reproductive events in the
male and in the female. In this chapter, you will examine the male and
female reproductive systems in humans. The subtopics covered in this
chapter are the male reproductive system, the female reproductive
system, gametogenesis, menstrual cycle, fertilisation and implantation,
pregnancy and embryonic development, parturition and lactation.

Chapter 4: Reproductive Health

In the previous chapter, you have learnt about human reproductive
system and its functions. This chapter discusses a closely related topic
– reproductive health. The term simply refers to healthy reproductive
organs with normal functions. According to the World Health Organisation
(WHO), reproductive health means total well-being in all aspects of
reproduction, i.e., physical, emotional, behavioural and social. It
covers subtopics such as Reproductive health –Problems and Strategies,
Population Explosion and Birth Control, Medical Termination of
Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Infertility.

Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Genetics is a branch of Biology that deals with inheritance, as well
as the variation of characters from parents to offspring. Inheritance is
the process by which characters are passed on from parent to progeny;
it is the basis of heredity. Variation is the degree by which progeny
differ from their parents. The chapter covers subtopics such as Mendel’s
Laws of Inheritance, Inheritance of One Gene, Inheritance of Two Genes,
Sex Determination, Mutation, Genetic Disorders.

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Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

In the previous chapter, you have learnt the inheritance patterns and
the genetic basis of such patterns. At the time of Mendel, the nature
of those ‘factors’ regulating the pattern of inheritance was not clear.
Over the next hundred years, the nature of the putative genetic material
was investigated culminating in the realisation that DNA –
deoxyribonucleic acid – is the genetic material, at least for the
majority of organisms. In Class XI you have learnt that nucleic acids
are polymers of nucleotides. It also includes subtopics such as The DNA,
The Search for Genetic
Material, RNA World, Replication, Transcription, Genetic Code,
Translation, Regulation of Gene Expression, Human Genome Project, DNA

Chapter 7: Evolution

Evolutionary Biology is the study of history of life forms on earth.
It covers subtopics such as Origin of Life, Evolution of Life Forms – A
Theory, What are the Evidences for Evolution? What is Adaptive
Radiation? Biological Evolution, Mechanism of Evolution, Hardy –
Weinberg Principle, A Brief Account of Evolution, Origin and Evolution
of Man related to Evolution, which is important for students to study.

Chapter 8: Human Health and Diseases

Health, for a long time, was considered as a state of body and mind
where there was a balance of certain humor. Health is affected by – (i)
genetic disorders – deficiencies with which a child is born and
deficiencies/defects which the child inherits from parents from birth;
(ii) infections and (iii) lifestyle including food and water we take,
rest and exercise we give to our bodies, habits that we have or lack,
etc. The chapter also includes subtopics such as Common Diseases in
Humans, Immunity, AIDS, Cancer, Drugs and Alcohol Abuse.

Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

With ever-increasing population of the world, enhancement of food
production is a major necessity. Biological principles, as applied to
animal husbandry and plant breeding have a major role in our efforts to
increase food production. Several new techniques like embryo transfer
technology and tissue culture techniques are going to play a pivotal
role in further enhancing food production. Subtopics that are explained
in the chapter are Animal Husbandry, Plant Breeding, Single Cell
Proteins, Tissue Culture.

Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare

Besides macroscopic plants and animals, microbes are the major
components of biological systems on this earth. You have studied about
the diversity of living organisms in Class XI. Microbes are
diverse–protozoa, bacteria, fungi and microscopic animal and plant
viruses, viroids and also prions that are proteinaceous infectious
agents. Microbes like bacteria and many fungi can be grown on nutritive
media to form colonies that can be seen with the naked eyes. Such
cultures are useful in studies on micro-organisms. Few of the subtopics
are Microbes in Household Products,  Microbes in Industrial Products,
Microbes in Sewage Treatment, Microbes in Production of Biogas, Microbes
as Biocontrol Agents, Microbes as Biofertilisers.

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Chapter 11: Biotechnology Principles and Processes

Biotechnology deals with techniques of using live organisms or
enzymes from organisms to produce products and processes useful to
humans.  The European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB) has given a
definition of biotechnology that encompasses both traditional view and
modern molecular biotechnology. The definition given by EFB is as
follows: ‘The integration of natural science and organisms, cells, parts
thereof, and molecular analogues for products and services’. Some of
the subtopics mentioned in the chapter are Principles of Biotechnology,
Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology, Processes of Recombinant DNA

Chapter 12: Biotechnology: and its Application

Biotechnology, as you would have learnt from the previous chapter,
essentially deals with industrial-scale production of biopharmaceuticals
and biologicals using genetically modified microbes, fungi, plants and
animals. The applications of biotechnology include therapeutics,
diagnostics, genetically modified crops for agriculture, processed food,
bioremediation, waste treatment, and energy production. The chapter
also includes topics such as Biotechnological Applications in
Agriculture, Biotechnological Applications in Medicine, Transgenic
Animals, Ethical Issues.

Chapter 13: Organisms and Populations

You have already learnt in previous classes that Ecology is a subject
which studies the interactions among organisms and between the organism
and its physical (abiotic) environment. Ecology is basically concerned
with four levels of biological organisation – organisms, populations,
communities and biomes. In this chapter, we explore ecology at
organismic and population levels. It also includes subtopics such
as Organism and Its Environment, Populations.

Chapter 14: Ecosystem

An ecosystem can be visualised as a functional unit of nature, where
living organisms interact among themselves and also with the surrounding
physical environment. In this chapter, we will first look at the
structure of the ecosystem, in order to appreciate the input
(productivity), transfer of energy (food chain/web, nutrient cycling)
and the output (degradation and energy loss). We will also look at the
relationships – cycles, chains, webs – that are created as a result of
these energy flows within the system and their inter- relationship. It
includes subtopics Ecosystem–Structure and Function, Productivity,
Decomposition, Energy Flow, Ecological Pyramids, Ecological Succession,
Nutrient Cycling, Ecosystem Services.

Chapter 15: Biodiversity and Conservation

Biodiversity and Conservations consist of topics like Genetic
diversity, Species diversity, Ecological diversity, Different types of
Species, Patterns of Diversity, Loss of Biodiversity, Biodiversity
Conservation, etc. Biodiversity conservation may be in situ as well as
ex situ. In in situ conservation, the endangered species are protected
in their natural habitat so that the entire ecosystem is protected. Ex
situ conservation methods include protective maintenance of threatened
species in zoological parks and botanical gardens, in vitro
fertilisation, tissue culture propagation and cryopreservation of

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Chapter 16: Environmental Issues

Human population size has grown enormously over the last hundred
years. This means increase in demand for food, water, home, electricity,
roads, automobiles and numerous other commodities. Pollution is any
undesirable change in physical, chemical or biological characteristics
of air, land, water or soil. Agents that bring about such an undesirable
change are called pollutants. Other subtopics students will study in
this chapter are Air Pollution and Its Control, Water Pollution and Its
Control, Solid Wastes, Agrochemicals and their Effects, Radioactive
Wastes, Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming, Ozone Depletion in the
Stratosphere, Degradation by Improper Resource Utilisation and
Maintenance, Deforestation.

Several important concepts, such as reproduction, inheritance,
evolution, food production, biotechnology, ecosystem, biodiversity, are
explained in-depth. The concepts have also been updated as per the
latest syllabus prescribed by CBSE.

BYJU’S is a learning company and we thoroughly understand the
importance of study materials and their implications on academic
excellence. Hence, we have designed Class 12 NCERT solutions, a learning resource aimed to help students study and achieve results.

Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions

Biology NCERT solutions Class 12 is more effective than any other
educational resource. We provide elaborate explanations, detailed
solutions, descriptive diagrams and more. Furthermore, we provide
accurate and updated answers to all the exercise questions given in
NCERT textbooks.

Downloadable files of ebooks, notes, pdfs are also available to let students study at their convenience.

Read More: NCERT Solutions For Classes 4 to 12

Benefits of Biology NCERT Solutions Class 12

  • Researched and written by experienced teachers
  • New Value-Based Questions with solutions in each chapter
  • Jargon-free, easy language
  • Content formulated as per CBSE curriculum
  • Extensive coverage of fundamental concepts
  • Solved Exemplar problems
  • The best resource for CBSE board exam preparation

Detailed Analysis of NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology

NCERT Textbooks are well known for their simplicity and
straightforward description of concepts. These textbooks are ideal for
students of CBSE class 12. It comprises questions that test their conceptual understanding.

Biology NCERT Solutions class 12 feature all the necessary
information with basic concepts to help the students in the preparation
of medical entrance exams like NEET.

Important Topics under NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology

  • Principles of Inheritance and Variations
  • Reproduction in organisms
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Evolution
  • Biotechnology
Std 12 Science Biology Imp. For Board Examination May 2021 For Gujarati Medium Student
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